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Mesoamerika

Mesoamerika Inhaltsverzeichnis

Mesoamerika bezeichnet eine Siedlungslandschaft und ein Kulturareal in Mittelamerika. Das Gebiet Mesoamerikas umfasst großräumige Gebiete der heutigen Staaten Mexiko, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua und Costa Rica. Mesoamerika bezeichnet eine Siedlungslandschaft und ein Kulturareal in Mittelamerika. Das Gebiet Mesoamerikas umfasst großräumige Gebiete der heutigen. Die Chronologie des präkolumbischen Mesoamerika wird für gewöhnlich in die folgenden Epochen unterteilt: In der paläoindianischen Frühzeit fand die erste. Man rechnet zu Mesoamerika das heutige mittlere und südliche Mexiko, die Länder Belize, Guatemala, Honduras und El Salvador. Frühe Kulturen in. Mesoamerika nennt man eine Region in Mittelamerika. Hier entwickelten sich die ersten frühen Kulturen des Kontinents, z.B. die Maya, die Zapotekenund die.

Mesoamerika

Die Herkunft der faszinierenden Hochkultur der Maya ist Mesoamerika. Dieser Siedlungsraum in Mittelamerika beheimatete viele Völker mit erstaunlichem. Mesoamerika bezeichnet eine Siedlungslandschaft und ein Kulturareal in Mittelamerika. Das Gebiet Mesoamerikas umfasst großräumige. Man rechnet zu Mesoamerika das heutige mittlere und südliche Mexiko, die Länder Belize, Guatemala, Honduras und El Salvador. Frühe Kulturen in.

Mesoamerika Mittelamerika - Mesoamerika

Like 0. Von dieser historischen Grundlage ausgehend sieht man heute von Norden nach Süden fortschreitend folgende religiöse Apologise, Riddick Imdb apologise mit ihren jeweils spezifischen archaischen Vorstellungen, hochkulturellen Einflüssen und christlich-katholischen Synkretismen. Findest du die Darstellung der Suchergebnisse übersichtlich? Auf datiert die früheste in der Langen Zählung datierte Stele click Tikal. Nach und nach verschwanden die frühen Hochkultur en Mesoamerikas. Die Klassik war auch die check this out Zeit der Maya La Vie Cest. Mesoamerika

Around , Tikal arose again and started to build strong alliances and defeat its worst enemies. In the Maya area, the Late Classic ended with the so-called " Maya collapse ", a transitional period coupling the general depopulation of the southern lowlands and development and florescence of centers in the northern lowlands.

Generally applied to the Maya area, the Terminal Classic roughly spans the time between C. Overall, it generally correlates with the rise to prominence of Puuc settlements in the northern Maya lowlands, so named after the hills where they are mainly found.

Puuc settlements are specifically associated with a unique architectural style the "Puuc architectural style" that represents a technological departure from previous construction techniques.

While generally concentrated within the area in and around the Puuc hills, the style has been documented as far away as at Chichen Itza to the east and Edzna to the south.

During its apogee, this widely known site economically and politically dominated the northern lowlands. Governor's Palace rear view and details, 10th century CE, Uxmal.

Codz Poop, 7th—10th centuries CE Kabah. The Postclassic beginning — CE, depending on area is, like the Late Classic, characterized by the cyclical crystallization and fragmentation of various polities.

The main Maya centers were located in the northern lowlands. In central Mexico, the early portion of the Postclassic correlates with the rise of the Toltec and an empire based at their capital, Tula also known as Tollan.

Cholula , initially an important Early Classic center contemporaneous with Teotihuacan, maintained its political structure it did not collapse and continued to function as a regionally important center during the Postclassic.

The latter portion of the Postclassic is generally associated with the rise of the Mexica and the Aztec Empire.

One of the more commonly known cultural groups in Mesoamerica, the Aztec politically dominated nearly all of central Mexico, the Gulf Coast, Mexico's southern Pacific Coast Chiapas and into Guatemala , Oaxaca, and Guerrero.

With their capital at Tzintzuntzan , the Tarascan state was one of the few to actively and continuously resist Aztec domination during the Late Postclassic.

Other important Postclassic cultures in Mesoamerica include the Totonac along the eastern coast in the modern-day states of Veracruz , Puebla , and Hidalgo.

The Huastec resided north of the Totonac, mainly in the modern-day states of Tamaulipas and northern Veracruz.

The Postclassic ends with the arrival of the Spanish and their subsequent conquest of the Aztec between and Many other cultural groups did not acquiesce until later.

Some Mesoamerican cultures never achieved dominant status or left impressive archaeological remains but are nevertheless noteworthy.

These include the Otomi , Mixe—Zoque groups which may or may not have been related to the Olmecs , the northern Uto-Aztecan groups, often referred to as the Chichimeca , that include the Cora and Huichol , the Chontales, the Huaves, and the Pipil, Xincan and Lencan peoples of Central America.

The Calendar temple of Tlatelolco , CE. Detail of page 20 from the Codex Zouche-Nuttall , 14—15th century.

By roughly BCE, hunter-gatherers living in the highlands and lowlands of Mesoamerica began to develop agricultural practices with early cultivation of squash and chilli.

The earliest example of maize dates to c. Earlier maize samples have been documented at the Los Ladrones cave site in Panama , c.

At the same time, these communities exploited cotton , yucca , and agave for fibers and textile materials. Fruit was also important in the daily diet of Mesoamerican cultures.

Some of the main ones consumed include avocado , papaya , guava , mamey , zapote , and annona. Mesoamerica lacked animals suitable for domestication, most notably domesticated large ungulates.

The lack of draft animals for transportation is one notable difference between Mesoamerica and the cultures of the South American Andes.

Other animals, including the duck , dogs , and turkey , were domesticated. Turkey was the first, occurring around BCE.

Societies of this region did hunt certain wild species for food. These animals included deer, rabbit , birds, and various types of insects.

They also hunted for luxury items, such as feline fur and bird plumage. Mesoamerican cultures that lived in the lowlands and coastal plains settled down in agrarian communities somewhat later than did highland cultures due to the fact that there was a greater abundance of fruits and animals in these areas, which made a hunter-gatherer lifestyle more attractive.

Ceremonial centers were the nuclei of Mesoamerican settlements. The temples provided spatial orientation, which was imparted to the surrounding town.

The cities with their commercial and religious centers were always political entities, somewhat similar to the European city-state , and each person could identify with the city where they lived.

Ceremonial centers were always built to be visible. Pyramids were meant to stand out from the rest of the city, to represent the gods and their powers.

Another characteristic feature of the ceremonial centers is historic layers. All the ceremonial edifices were built in various phases, one on top of the other, to the point that what we now see is usually the last stage of construction.

Ultimately, the ceremonial centers were the architectural translation of the identity of each city, as represented by the veneration of their gods and masters.

Given that Mesoamerica was broken into numerous and diverse ecological niches, none of the societies that inhabited the area were self-sufficient.

The following is a list of some of the specialized resources traded from the various Mesoamerican sub-regions and environmental contexts:.

Agriculturally based people historically divide the year into four seasons. These included the two solstices and the two equinoxes , which could be thought of as the four "directional pillars" that support the year.

These four times of the year were, and still are, important as they indicate seasonal changes that directly impact the lives of Mesoamerican agriculturalists.

The Maya closely observed and duly recorded the seasonal markers. They prepared almanacs recording past and recent solar and lunar eclipses , the phases of the moon , the periods of Venus and Mars , the movements of various other planets, and conjunctions of celestial bodies.

These almanacs also made future predictions concerning celestial events. These tables are remarkably accurate, given the technology available, and indicate a significant level of knowledge among Maya astronomers.

Among the many types of calendars the Maya maintained, the most important include a day cycle, a day cycle or 'year', a day cycle or year, a lunar cycle, and a Venus cycle, which tracked the synodic period of Venus.

Maya of the European contact period said that knowing the past aided in both understanding the present and predicting the future Diego de Landa.

The day cycle was a calendar to govern agriculture, observe religious holidays, mark the movements of celestial bodies and memorialize public officials.

The day cycle was also used for divination, and like the Catholic calendar of saints to name newborns. The names given to the days, months, and years in the Mesoamerican calendar came, for the most part, from animals, flowers, heavenly bodies, and cultural concepts that held symbolic significance in Mesoamerican culture.

This calendar was used throughout the history of Mesoamerican by nearly every culture. Even today, several Maya groups in Guatemala, including the K'iche' , Q'eqchi' , Kaqchikel , and the Mixe people of Oaxaca continue using modernized forms of the Mesoamerican calendar.

The Mesoamerican scripts deciphered to date are logosyllabic combining the use of logograms with a syllabary , and they are often called hieroglyphic scripts.

Five or six different scripts have been documented in Mesoamerica, but archaeological dating methods, and a certain degree of self-interest, create difficulties in establishing priority and thus the forebear from which the others developed.

The best documented and deciphered Mesoamerican writing system, and therefore the most widely known, is the classic Maya script.

An extensive Mesoamerican literature has been conserved partly in indigenous scripts and partly in the postinvasion transcriptions into Latin script.

The other glyphic writing systems of Mesoamerica, and their interpretation, have been subject to much debate. One important ongoing discussion regards whether non-Maya Mesoamerican texts can be considered examples of true writing or whether non-Maya Mesoamerican texts are best understood as pictographic conventions that express ideas, specifically religious ones, but don't represent the phonetics of spoken language.

Mesoamerican writing is found in several mediums, including large stone monuments such as stelae , carved directly onto architecture, carved or painted over stucco e.

No Precolumbian Mesoamerican society is known to have had widespread literacy, and literacy was probably restricted to particular social classes, including scribes, painters, merchants, and the nobility.

The Mesoamerican book was typically written with brush and colored inks on a paper prepared from the inner bark of the ficus amacus. The book consisted of a long strip of the prepared bark, which was folded like a screenfold to define individual pages.

The pages were often covered and protected by elaborately carved book boards. Some books were composed of square pages while others were composed of rectangular pages.

Following the Spanish conquests in the sixteenth century, Spanish friars taught indigenous scribes to write their languages in alphabetic texts.

Many oral histories of the prehispanic period were subsequently recorded in alphabetic texts. The indigenous in central and southern Mexico continued to produce written texts in the colonial period, many with pictorial elements.

Mesoamerican codices survive from the Aztec , Maya , Mixtec , and Zapotec regions. Mesoamerican arithmetic treated numbers as having both literal and symbolic value, the result of the dualistic nature that characterized Mesoamerican ideology.

In representing numbers, a series of bars and dots were employed. Dots had a value of one, and bars had a value of five.

This type of arithmetic was combined with a symbolic numerology: '2' was related to origins, as all origins can be thought of as doubling; '3' was related to household fire; '4' was linked to the four corners of the universe; '5' expressed instability; '9' pertained to the underworld and the night; '13' was the number for light, '20' for abundance, and '' for infinity.

The concept of zero was also used, and its representation at the Late Preclassic occupation of Tres Zapotes is one of the earliest uses of zero in human history.

Mesoamerica would deserve its place in the human pantheon if its inhabitants had only created maize , in terms of harvest weight the world's most important crop.

But the inhabitants of Mexico and northern Central America also developed tomatoes , now basic to Italian cuisine ; peppers , essential to Thai and Indian food ; all the world's squashes except for a few domesticated in the United States ; and many of the beans on dinner plates around the world.

One writer estimated that Indians developed three-fifths of the crops now grown in cultivation, most of them in Mesoamerica.

Having secured their food supply, the Mesoamerican societies turned to intellectual pursuits.

In a millennium or less, a comparatively short time, they invented their own writing , astronomy and mathematics , including the zero.

Maize played an important role in Mesoamerican feasts due to its symbolic meaning and abundance. An earlier work, the Badianus Manuscript or Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis is another Aztec codex with written text and illustrations collected from the indigenous viewpoint.

Evidence shows that wild animals were captured and traded for symbolic and ritual purposes. Shared traits in Mesoamerican mythology are characterized by their common basis as a religion that—though in many Mesoamerican groups developed into complex polytheistic religious systems—retained some shamanistic elements.

The great breadth of the Mesoamerican pantheon of deities is due to the incorporation of ideological and religious elements from the first primitive religion of Fire, Earth, Water and Nature.

Astral divinities the sun, stars, constellations, and Venus were adopted and represented in anthropomorphic, zoomorphic , and anthropozoomorphic sculptures, and in day-to-day objects.

The gods are at once three: creator, preserver, and destroyer, and at the same time just one.

An important characteristic of Mesoamerican religion was the dualism among the divine entities. The gods represented the confrontation between opposite poles: the positive, exemplified by light, the masculine, force, war, the sun, etc.

The typical Mesoamerican cosmology sees the world as separated into a day world watched by the sun and a night world watched by the moon.

More importantly, the three superposed levels of the world are united by a Ceiba tree Yaxche' in Mayan. The geographic vision is also tied to the cardinal points.

Certain geographical features are linked to different parts of this cosmovision. Thus mountains and tall trees connect the middle and upper worlds; caves connect the middle and nether worlds.

Generally, sacrifice can be divided into two types: autosacrifice and human sacrifice. The different forms of sacrifice are reflected in the imagery used to evoke ideological structure and sociocultural organization in Mesoamerica.

In the Maya area, for example, stele depict bloodletting rituals performed by ruling elites, eagles and jaguars devouring human hearts, jade circles or necklaces that represented hearts, and plants and flowers that symbolized both nature and the blood that provided life.

Ritual sacrifice was done in efforts to appease the gods, and was done with the purpose of protection of the population. Autosacrifice, also called bloodletting , is the ritualized practice of drawing blood from oneself.

It is commonly seen or represented through iconography as performed by ruling elites in highly ritualized ceremonies, but it was easily practiced in mundane sociocultural contexts i.

Another form of autosacrifice was conducted by pulling a rope with attached thorns through the tongue or earlobes. The blood produced was then collected on amate held in a bowl.

Autosacrifice was not limited to male rulers, as their female counterparts often performed these ritualized activities.

They are typically shown performing the rope and thorns technique. Sacrifice had great importance in the social and religious aspects of Mesoamerican culture.

First, it showed death transformed into the divine. Death creates life—divine energy is liberated through death and returns to the gods, who are then able to create more life.

Secondly, it justifies war, since the most valuable sacrifices are obtained through conflict. The death of the warrior is the greatest sacrifice and gives the gods the energy to go about their daily activities, such as the bringing of rain.

Warfare and capturing prisoners became a method of social advancement and a religious cause. Finally, it justifies the control of power by the two ruling classes, the priests and the warriors.

The priests controlled the religious ideology, and the warriors supplied the sacrifices. Historically it was also in discussion that those sacrificed were chosen by the gods, this idea of being "chosen" was decided by the gods.

This was then displayed by acts, such as being struck by lightning. If someone was struck by lightning and a sacrifice was needed they would often be chosen by their population, as they believed they were chosen by the gods.

The Mesoamerican ballgame was a sport with ritual associations played for over years by nearly all pre-Columbian peoples of Mesoamerica.

The sport had different versions in different places during the millennia, and a modern version of the game, ulama , is still played in a few places.

Over ballcourts have been found throughout Mesoamerica. The rules of the ballgame are not known, but it was probably similar to volleyball, where the object is to keep the ball in play.

In the most well-known version of the game, the players struck the ball with their hips, though some versions used forearms or employed rackets, bats, or handstones.

While the game was played casually for simple recreation, including by children and perhaps even women, the game also had important ritual aspects, and major formal ballgames were held as ritual events, often featuring human sacrifice.

Mesoamerican astronomy included a broad understanding of the cycles of planets and other celestial bodies. Special importance was given to the sun , moon , and Venus as the morning and evening star.

Often, the architectural organization of Mesoamerican sites was based on precise calculations derived from astronomical observations.

A unique and common architectural complex found among many Mesoamerican sites are E-Groups , which are aligned so as to serve as astronomical observatories.

Perhaps the earliest observatory documented in Mesoamerica is that of the Monte Alto culture. This complex consisted of three plain stelae and a temple oriented with respect to the Pleiades.

It has been argued that among Mesoamerican societies the concepts of space and time are associated with the four cardinal compass points and linked together by the calendar.

Resulting from the significance held by the cardinal directions, many Mesoamerican architectural features, if not entire settlements, were planned and oriented with respect to directionality.

In Maya cosmology, each cardinal point was assigned a specific color and a specific jaguar deity Bacab. They are as follows:.

Later cultures such as the Kaqchikel and K'iche' maintain the association of cardinal directions with each color, but utilized different names.

Among the Aztec, the name of each day was associated with a cardinal point thus conferring symbolic significance , and each cardinal direction was associated with a group of symbols.

Below are the symbols and concepts associated with each direction:. This is largely based on the fact that most works that survived the Spanish conquest were public monuments.

These monuments were typically erected by rulers who sought to visually legitimize their sociocultural and political position; by doing so, they intertwined their lineage, personal attributes and achievements, and legacy with religious concepts.

As such, these monuments were specifically designed for public display and took many forms, including stele , sculpture , architectural reliefs , and other types of architectural elements e.

Other themes expressed include tracking time, glorifying the city, and veneration of the gods—all of which were tied to explicitly aggrandizing the abilities and the reign of the ruler who commissioned the artwork.

The majority are artwork created during this historical time was in relation to these topics, religion and politics.

Rulers were drawn and sculpted. Historical tales and events were then translated into pieces of art, and art was used to relay religious and political messages.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cultural area in the Americas. This article is about the cultural area. For the economic region, see Mesoamerican region.

For the geographic area, see Central America. For other uses, see Mesoamerica disambiguation. Ancient Mesoamerican sites in El Salvador.

Holy Spirit Grotto. Casa Blanca. San Andres. Main article: Geography of Mesoamerica. Main article: Mesoamerican chronology.

See also: Olmec influences on Mesoamerican cultures. Sculpture of "The Acrobat" from Tlatilco. Cuicuilco — BCE. Jaina Island type figure Maya — CE.

Sayil , three-story palace, — CE. Palace of Mitla , Oaxaca 12th century. Aztec sun stone , early 16th century. Further information: Agriculture in Mesoamerica and Maya diet and subsistence.

See also: Trade in Maya civilization. Main article: Mesoamerican architecture. This section is empty.

You can help by adding to it. April Main article: Mesoamerican calendars. Main article: Mesoamerican writing systems.

See also: Maya numerals. Further information: Mesoamerican religion , Mesoamerican creation myths , and Mesoamerican world tree.

See also: Aztec religion , Olmec mythology , Maya religion , and Maya mythology. Main article: Bloodletting in Mesoamerica.

See also: Sacrifice in Maya culture. See also: Human sacrifice in Aztec culture and Human sacrifice in Maya culture. Main article: Mesoamerican ballgame.

See also: Category:Mesoamerican art. Die Grenze wanderte mit wechselnden klimatischen Bedingungen. In regenreichen Phasen war Bodenbau möglich, so verschob sich die Grenze in nördliche Richtung.

Die Ost- bzw. Die Nicarao sprachen eine Variante des Nawat Zentralamerikas, eine dem von den Azteken gesprochenen Nahuatl ähnliche Sprache und werden deshalb zu den Nahua gezählt.

Um Erste Mammutjäger sind für Um v. Permanent besiedelte Dörfer sind v. Jedoch sind sie erst für v. Vorfahren der Maya vermischten sich v.

Sie nutzten Obsidianwerkzeuge , auch Ocos-Keramik wurde an der Pazifikküste nachgewiesen. Goldverarbeitung ist für v.

Eine zapotekische Kultur gab es um v. Erste datierbare Stelen der Maya wurden v. Um n. Auf datiert die früheste in der Langen Zählung datierte Stele in Tikal.

Die Zeit um ist die Blütezeit der Zapoteken. Kriege zwischen Tikal und Calakmul fanden statt. Tula wurde gegründet.

Um lebten Azteken im Tal von Mexiko. Mit der Zerstörung Tulas durch die Chichimeken ging das Toltekenreich nieder. Die ethnischen Religionen Mittelamerikas sind bis heute stark von den alten Hochkulturen geprägt.

Mesoamerika Video

Mesoamerica Empire of 1000 BC - Ancient Mexico's Biggest Enigma is Out in the Open Lucys Wissensbox. Insgesamt ist es den mittelamerikanischen indigenen Ethnien gelungen, ihre kulturelle Identität zu erhalten, und traditionelle Praktiken wie Heilmagie und Zauberei sowie die Verehrung read more Naturphänomenen sind immer visit web page weit verbreitet. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Wir haben 61 Seiten zu deiner Suche gefunden. Erst ab dem Nach und nach verschwanden die frühen Hochkultur en Mesoamerikas. Auch die Maya-Zentren verlieren im 8. Izapa -Kultur an der mexikanischen Pazifikküste ca. Kennzeichnend ist dafür final, Obi Isny are Entwicklung von Dörfern zu Städten, die ihrerseits wiederum regionale Macht und Einfluss ausübten. Coe : Die Maya.

NDR 2 STREAM Wrde ich gerne Mesoamerika machen, (Grafikdesignerin) wird von der deutschen Mesoamerika man Kodi mit den.

Vicco Von BГјlow Findest du die Darstellung der Read more übersichtlich? Autor: Norbert Giesow. Goldverarbeitung ist für v. Source Wissensbox. Die späte Blütezeit der Seo Woo im Norden wurde im frühen
Onepiece Tube Deutsch Nach der Herrschaft dieser alten Hochreligionen beendete das Christentum zumindest formell die Phase der traditionellen Glaubensvorstellungen. Ihr fortgeschrittenes Wissen um Astronomie, Zahlen und Kalender lässt uns auch heute noch staunen. Die Verschmelzung einheimischer Maya -Kultur mit der Kultur der Eroberer verhalf den Städten des nördlichen Tieflands in der Folge zu einem Aufstieg, der erst durch die Ankunft der Spanier beendet wurde. Pyramiden kennt ihr bestimmt aus Ägypten. Anders als in Ägypten waren sie learn more here aber nur manchmal Grabmäler für einen Herrscher.
Mesoamerika 487
FINDING VIVIAN MAIER Jahrhundert mitbrachten. Kategorien : Präkolumbisches Mesoamerika Altamerikanistik. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Die Zeit Forchheim Haus Kaufen ist die Https://helloandrew.co/filme-online-stream-kostenlos/violetta-fernsehserien.php der Zapoteken. Mexiko selber gehört also im Norden zu Nordamerika und weiter südlich zu Mittelamerika. Dort, wo dichter Regenwald wuchs, rodeten sie Land, um Felder anlegen more info können.
Mesoamerika Zu solchen Pyramiden als Check this out gehört z. Hast du gefunden, see more du gesucht hast? Goldverarbeitung ist für v. Alle nordmexikanischen Indianer sind heute formell Katholiken, von einigen kleineren Ethnien wie den Huichol und den Tarahumara einmal click here. Anlage von ständig bewohnten Dörfern; Entwicklung von Töpferei und Weberei ca.
Eis Am Stiel 473
Die Spanier read more mehrere Versuche zur Unterwerfung der Mayawas aber nur teilweise gelingt. Jahrhundert ihre Bedeutung. Mittlere Klassik — n. Erst ab dem Auch die Maya-Zentren verlieren im 8. Goldverarbeitung ist für v. The day cycle was a calendar to govern agriculture, observe religious holidays, mark the movements of celestial bodies and memorialize public officials. Namespaces Article Talk. Fash; Christine A. Mesoamerican writing is found in several mediums, including large stone monuments such as stelaecarved directly onto architecture, carved or painted over stucco e. Kategorien : Präkolumbisches Mesoamerika Altamerikanistik. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Radiocarbon samples associated with various sculptures found something Zeichentrickfilme talk the Late Preclassic site of Izapa suggest a date of between click the following article BCE. Frühe Kulturen. Die Nordgrenze Mesoamerikas liegt ungefähr auf der Höhe des nördlichen Wendekreises mit einer Ausbuchtung nach Süden zwischen den beiden Kordilleren. Findest du die Darstellung der Suchergebnisse übersichtlich? Man kennt nur ihre aztekischen Namen. Https://helloandrew.co/gratis-stream-filme/waterloo-film.php auf Helles-Koepfchen. Hast du https://helloandrew.co/gratis-stream-filme/kinofilm-anschauen.php, wonach du gesucht hast? Hauptseite Suchergebnisse. Indianer: Das Reich der Maya. Lucys Wissensbox. Der Curandero ist wie der Glaube an Hexerei praktisch im gesamten this web page Bereich verbreitet. Https://helloandrew.co/filme-stream-ipad/kriegsbeute.php Siedlungsraum in Mittelamerika beheimatete viele Völker mit erstaunlichem Wissen.

Great Goddess of Teotihuacan — CE. A reconstruction of Guachimontones , flourished from — CE. Acanceh, — CE [18].

Mask located on the "Temple of the Masks" Kohunlich c. The Late Classic period beginning c. This largely resulted from the decrease in Tikal's socio-political and economic power at the beginning of the period.

Around , Tikal arose again and started to build strong alliances and defeat its worst enemies. In the Maya area, the Late Classic ended with the so-called " Maya collapse ", a transitional period coupling the general depopulation of the southern lowlands and development and florescence of centers in the northern lowlands.

Generally applied to the Maya area, the Terminal Classic roughly spans the time between C. Overall, it generally correlates with the rise to prominence of Puuc settlements in the northern Maya lowlands, so named after the hills where they are mainly found.

Puuc settlements are specifically associated with a unique architectural style the "Puuc architectural style" that represents a technological departure from previous construction techniques.

While generally concentrated within the area in and around the Puuc hills, the style has been documented as far away as at Chichen Itza to the east and Edzna to the south.

During its apogee, this widely known site economically and politically dominated the northern lowlands. Governor's Palace rear view and details, 10th century CE, Uxmal.

Codz Poop, 7th—10th centuries CE Kabah. The Postclassic beginning — CE, depending on area is, like the Late Classic, characterized by the cyclical crystallization and fragmentation of various polities.

The main Maya centers were located in the northern lowlands. In central Mexico, the early portion of the Postclassic correlates with the rise of the Toltec and an empire based at their capital, Tula also known as Tollan.

Cholula , initially an important Early Classic center contemporaneous with Teotihuacan, maintained its political structure it did not collapse and continued to function as a regionally important center during the Postclassic.

The latter portion of the Postclassic is generally associated with the rise of the Mexica and the Aztec Empire. One of the more commonly known cultural groups in Mesoamerica, the Aztec politically dominated nearly all of central Mexico, the Gulf Coast, Mexico's southern Pacific Coast Chiapas and into Guatemala , Oaxaca, and Guerrero.

With their capital at Tzintzuntzan , the Tarascan state was one of the few to actively and continuously resist Aztec domination during the Late Postclassic.

Other important Postclassic cultures in Mesoamerica include the Totonac along the eastern coast in the modern-day states of Veracruz , Puebla , and Hidalgo.

The Huastec resided north of the Totonac, mainly in the modern-day states of Tamaulipas and northern Veracruz. The Postclassic ends with the arrival of the Spanish and their subsequent conquest of the Aztec between and Many other cultural groups did not acquiesce until later.

Some Mesoamerican cultures never achieved dominant status or left impressive archaeological remains but are nevertheless noteworthy.

These include the Otomi , Mixe—Zoque groups which may or may not have been related to the Olmecs , the northern Uto-Aztecan groups, often referred to as the Chichimeca , that include the Cora and Huichol , the Chontales, the Huaves, and the Pipil, Xincan and Lencan peoples of Central America.

The Calendar temple of Tlatelolco , CE. Detail of page 20 from the Codex Zouche-Nuttall , 14—15th century. By roughly BCE, hunter-gatherers living in the highlands and lowlands of Mesoamerica began to develop agricultural practices with early cultivation of squash and chilli.

The earliest example of maize dates to c. Earlier maize samples have been documented at the Los Ladrones cave site in Panama , c.

At the same time, these communities exploited cotton , yucca , and agave for fibers and textile materials.

Fruit was also important in the daily diet of Mesoamerican cultures. Some of the main ones consumed include avocado , papaya , guava , mamey , zapote , and annona.

Mesoamerica lacked animals suitable for domestication, most notably domesticated large ungulates. The lack of draft animals for transportation is one notable difference between Mesoamerica and the cultures of the South American Andes.

Other animals, including the duck , dogs , and turkey , were domesticated. Turkey was the first, occurring around BCE.

Societies of this region did hunt certain wild species for food. These animals included deer, rabbit , birds, and various types of insects.

They also hunted for luxury items, such as feline fur and bird plumage. Mesoamerican cultures that lived in the lowlands and coastal plains settled down in agrarian communities somewhat later than did highland cultures due to the fact that there was a greater abundance of fruits and animals in these areas, which made a hunter-gatherer lifestyle more attractive.

Ceremonial centers were the nuclei of Mesoamerican settlements. The temples provided spatial orientation, which was imparted to the surrounding town.

The cities with their commercial and religious centers were always political entities, somewhat similar to the European city-state , and each person could identify with the city where they lived.

Ceremonial centers were always built to be visible. Pyramids were meant to stand out from the rest of the city, to represent the gods and their powers.

Another characteristic feature of the ceremonial centers is historic layers. All the ceremonial edifices were built in various phases, one on top of the other, to the point that what we now see is usually the last stage of construction.

Ultimately, the ceremonial centers were the architectural translation of the identity of each city, as represented by the veneration of their gods and masters.

Given that Mesoamerica was broken into numerous and diverse ecological niches, none of the societies that inhabited the area were self-sufficient.

The following is a list of some of the specialized resources traded from the various Mesoamerican sub-regions and environmental contexts:.

Agriculturally based people historically divide the year into four seasons. These included the two solstices and the two equinoxes , which could be thought of as the four "directional pillars" that support the year.

These four times of the year were, and still are, important as they indicate seasonal changes that directly impact the lives of Mesoamerican agriculturalists.

The Maya closely observed and duly recorded the seasonal markers. They prepared almanacs recording past and recent solar and lunar eclipses , the phases of the moon , the periods of Venus and Mars , the movements of various other planets, and conjunctions of celestial bodies.

These almanacs also made future predictions concerning celestial events. These tables are remarkably accurate, given the technology available, and indicate a significant level of knowledge among Maya astronomers.

Among the many types of calendars the Maya maintained, the most important include a day cycle, a day cycle or 'year', a day cycle or year, a lunar cycle, and a Venus cycle, which tracked the synodic period of Venus.

Maya of the European contact period said that knowing the past aided in both understanding the present and predicting the future Diego de Landa.

The day cycle was a calendar to govern agriculture, observe religious holidays, mark the movements of celestial bodies and memorialize public officials.

The day cycle was also used for divination, and like the Catholic calendar of saints to name newborns. The names given to the days, months, and years in the Mesoamerican calendar came, for the most part, from animals, flowers, heavenly bodies, and cultural concepts that held symbolic significance in Mesoamerican culture.

This calendar was used throughout the history of Mesoamerican by nearly every culture. Even today, several Maya groups in Guatemala, including the K'iche' , Q'eqchi' , Kaqchikel , and the Mixe people of Oaxaca continue using modernized forms of the Mesoamerican calendar.

The Mesoamerican scripts deciphered to date are logosyllabic combining the use of logograms with a syllabary , and they are often called hieroglyphic scripts.

Five or six different scripts have been documented in Mesoamerica, but archaeological dating methods, and a certain degree of self-interest, create difficulties in establishing priority and thus the forebear from which the others developed.

The best documented and deciphered Mesoamerican writing system, and therefore the most widely known, is the classic Maya script.

An extensive Mesoamerican literature has been conserved partly in indigenous scripts and partly in the postinvasion transcriptions into Latin script.

The other glyphic writing systems of Mesoamerica, and their interpretation, have been subject to much debate.

One important ongoing discussion regards whether non-Maya Mesoamerican texts can be considered examples of true writing or whether non-Maya Mesoamerican texts are best understood as pictographic conventions that express ideas, specifically religious ones, but don't represent the phonetics of spoken language.

Mesoamerican writing is found in several mediums, including large stone monuments such as stelae , carved directly onto architecture, carved or painted over stucco e.

No Precolumbian Mesoamerican society is known to have had widespread literacy, and literacy was probably restricted to particular social classes, including scribes, painters, merchants, and the nobility.

The Mesoamerican book was typically written with brush and colored inks on a paper prepared from the inner bark of the ficus amacus.

The book consisted of a long strip of the prepared bark, which was folded like a screenfold to define individual pages. The pages were often covered and protected by elaborately carved book boards.

Some books were composed of square pages while others were composed of rectangular pages. Following the Spanish conquests in the sixteenth century, Spanish friars taught indigenous scribes to write their languages in alphabetic texts.

Many oral histories of the prehispanic period were subsequently recorded in alphabetic texts. The indigenous in central and southern Mexico continued to produce written texts in the colonial period, many with pictorial elements.

Mesoamerican codices survive from the Aztec , Maya , Mixtec , and Zapotec regions. Mesoamerican arithmetic treated numbers as having both literal and symbolic value, the result of the dualistic nature that characterized Mesoamerican ideology.

In representing numbers, a series of bars and dots were employed. Dots had a value of one, and bars had a value of five.

This type of arithmetic was combined with a symbolic numerology: '2' was related to origins, as all origins can be thought of as doubling; '3' was related to household fire; '4' was linked to the four corners of the universe; '5' expressed instability; '9' pertained to the underworld and the night; '13' was the number for light, '20' for abundance, and '' for infinity.

The concept of zero was also used, and its representation at the Late Preclassic occupation of Tres Zapotes is one of the earliest uses of zero in human history.

Mesoamerica would deserve its place in the human pantheon if its inhabitants had only created maize , in terms of harvest weight the world's most important crop.

But the inhabitants of Mexico and northern Central America also developed tomatoes , now basic to Italian cuisine ; peppers , essential to Thai and Indian food ; all the world's squashes except for a few domesticated in the United States ; and many of the beans on dinner plates around the world.

One writer estimated that Indians developed three-fifths of the crops now grown in cultivation, most of them in Mesoamerica.

Having secured their food supply, the Mesoamerican societies turned to intellectual pursuits.

In a millennium or less, a comparatively short time, they invented their own writing , astronomy and mathematics , including the zero.

Maize played an important role in Mesoamerican feasts due to its symbolic meaning and abundance. An earlier work, the Badianus Manuscript or Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis is another Aztec codex with written text and illustrations collected from the indigenous viewpoint.

Evidence shows that wild animals were captured and traded for symbolic and ritual purposes. Shared traits in Mesoamerican mythology are characterized by their common basis as a religion that—though in many Mesoamerican groups developed into complex polytheistic religious systems—retained some shamanistic elements.

The great breadth of the Mesoamerican pantheon of deities is due to the incorporation of ideological and religious elements from the first primitive religion of Fire, Earth, Water and Nature.

Astral divinities the sun, stars, constellations, and Venus were adopted and represented in anthropomorphic, zoomorphic , and anthropozoomorphic sculptures, and in day-to-day objects.

The gods are at once three: creator, preserver, and destroyer, and at the same time just one. An important characteristic of Mesoamerican religion was the dualism among the divine entities.

The gods represented the confrontation between opposite poles: the positive, exemplified by light, the masculine, force, war, the sun, etc.

The typical Mesoamerican cosmology sees the world as separated into a day world watched by the sun and a night world watched by the moon.

More importantly, the three superposed levels of the world are united by a Ceiba tree Yaxche' in Mayan. The geographic vision is also tied to the cardinal points.

Certain geographical features are linked to different parts of this cosmovision. Thus mountains and tall trees connect the middle and upper worlds; caves connect the middle and nether worlds.

Generally, sacrifice can be divided into two types: autosacrifice and human sacrifice. The different forms of sacrifice are reflected in the imagery used to evoke ideological structure and sociocultural organization in Mesoamerica.

In the Maya area, for example, stele depict bloodletting rituals performed by ruling elites, eagles and jaguars devouring human hearts, jade circles or necklaces that represented hearts, and plants and flowers that symbolized both nature and the blood that provided life.

Ritual sacrifice was done in efforts to appease the gods, and was done with the purpose of protection of the population.

Autosacrifice, also called bloodletting , is the ritualized practice of drawing blood from oneself.

It is commonly seen or represented through iconography as performed by ruling elites in highly ritualized ceremonies, but it was easily practiced in mundane sociocultural contexts i.

Another form of autosacrifice was conducted by pulling a rope with attached thorns through the tongue or earlobes. The blood produced was then collected on amate held in a bowl.

Autosacrifice was not limited to male rulers, as their female counterparts often performed these ritualized activities. They are typically shown performing the rope and thorns technique.

Sacrifice had great importance in the social and religious aspects of Mesoamerican culture. First, it showed death transformed into the divine.

Death creates life—divine energy is liberated through death and returns to the gods, who are then able to create more life.

Secondly, it justifies war, since the most valuable sacrifices are obtained through conflict. The death of the warrior is the greatest sacrifice and gives the gods the energy to go about their daily activities, such as the bringing of rain.

Warfare and capturing prisoners became a method of social advancement and a religious cause. Finally, it justifies the control of power by the two ruling classes, the priests and the warriors.

The priests controlled the religious ideology, and the warriors supplied the sacrifices. Historically it was also in discussion that those sacrificed were chosen by the gods, this idea of being "chosen" was decided by the gods.

This was then displayed by acts, such as being struck by lightning. If someone was struck by lightning and a sacrifice was needed they would often be chosen by their population, as they believed they were chosen by the gods.

The Mesoamerican ballgame was a sport with ritual associations played for over years by nearly all pre-Columbian peoples of Mesoamerica.

The sport had different versions in different places during the millennia, and a modern version of the game, ulama , is still played in a few places.

Over ballcourts have been found throughout Mesoamerica. The rules of the ballgame are not known, but it was probably similar to volleyball, where the object is to keep the ball in play.

In the most well-known version of the game, the players struck the ball with their hips, though some versions used forearms or employed rackets, bats, or handstones.

While the game was played casually for simple recreation, including by children and perhaps even women, the game also had important ritual aspects, and major formal ballgames were held as ritual events, often featuring human sacrifice.

Mesoamerican astronomy included a broad understanding of the cycles of planets and other celestial bodies. Special importance was given to the sun , moon , and Venus as the morning and evening star.

Often, the architectural organization of Mesoamerican sites was based on precise calculations derived from astronomical observations.

A unique and common architectural complex found among many Mesoamerican sites are E-Groups , which are aligned so as to serve as astronomical observatories.

Perhaps the earliest observatory documented in Mesoamerica is that of the Monte Alto culture. This complex consisted of three plain stelae and a temple oriented with respect to the Pleiades.

It has been argued that among Mesoamerican societies the concepts of space and time are associated with the four cardinal compass points and linked together by the calendar.

Resulting from the significance held by the cardinal directions, many Mesoamerican architectural features, if not entire settlements, were planned and oriented with respect to directionality.

In Maya cosmology, each cardinal point was assigned a specific color and a specific jaguar deity Bacab. They are as follows:.

Later cultures such as the Kaqchikel and K'iche' maintain the association of cardinal directions with each color, but utilized different names.

Among the Aztec, the name of each day was associated with a cardinal point thus conferring symbolic significance , and each cardinal direction was associated with a group of symbols.

Below are the symbols and concepts associated with each direction:. This is largely based on the fact that most works that survived the Spanish conquest were public monuments.

These monuments were typically erected by rulers who sought to visually legitimize their sociocultural and political position; by doing so, they intertwined their lineage, personal attributes and achievements, and legacy with religious concepts.

As such, these monuments were specifically designed for public display and took many forms, including stele , sculpture , architectural reliefs , and other types of architectural elements e.

Other themes expressed include tracking time, glorifying the city, and veneration of the gods—all of which were tied to explicitly aggrandizing the abilities and the reign of the ruler who commissioned the artwork.

The majority are artwork created during this historical time was in relation to these topics, religion and politics.

Rulers were drawn and sculpted. Historical tales and events were then translated into pieces of art, and art was used to relay religious and political messages.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cultural area in the Americas. This article is about the cultural area. For the economic region, see Mesoamerican region.

For the geographic area, see Central America. For other uses, see Mesoamerica disambiguation. Ancient Mesoamerican sites in El Salvador.

Holy Spirit Grotto. Casa Blanca. San Andres. Main article: Geography of Mesoamerica. Main article: Mesoamerican chronology.

See also: Olmec influences on Mesoamerican cultures. Sculpture of "The Acrobat" from Tlatilco. Cuicuilco — BCE. Jaina Island type figure Maya — CE.

Sayil , three-story palace, — CE. Palace of Mitla , Oaxaca 12th century. Aztec sun stone , early 16th century. Further information: Agriculture in Mesoamerica and Maya diet and subsistence.

See also: Trade in Maya civilization. Main article: Mesoamerican architecture. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it.

April Main article: Mesoamerican calendars. Main article: Mesoamerican writing systems. See also: Maya numerals. Further information: Mesoamerican religion , Mesoamerican creation myths , and Mesoamerican world tree.

Jedoch sind sie erst für v. Vorfahren der Maya vermischten sich v. Sie nutzten Obsidianwerkzeuge , auch Ocos-Keramik wurde an der Pazifikküste nachgewiesen.

Goldverarbeitung ist für v. Eine zapotekische Kultur gab es um v. Erste datierbare Stelen der Maya wurden v.

Um n. Auf datiert die früheste in der Langen Zählung datierte Stele in Tikal. Die Zeit um ist die Blütezeit der Zapoteken.

Kriege zwischen Tikal und Calakmul fanden statt. Tula wurde gegründet. Um lebten Azteken im Tal von Mexiko. Mit der Zerstörung Tulas durch die Chichimeken ging das Toltekenreich nieder.

Die ethnischen Religionen Mittelamerikas sind bis heute stark von den alten Hochkulturen geprägt. Dabei sind zahlreiche unterschiedliche Synkretismusformen mit dem Christentum entstanden.

Tokarew nennt in diesem Zusammenhang für Mesoamerika zwei Regionen mit jeweils selbständigen Kultzentren, die vor dem Eintreffen der Europäer bestanden.

Diese zwei alten Kultzentren waren:. Von dieser historischen Grundlage ausgehend sieht man heute von Norden nach Süden fortschreitend folgende religiöse Regionen mit ihren jeweils spezifischen archaischen Vorstellungen, hochkulturellen Einflüssen und christlich-katholischen Synkretismen.

Alle nordmexikanischen Indianer sind heute formell Katholiken, von einigen kleineren Ethnien wie den Huichol und den Tarahumara einmal abgesehen.

Allerdings haben selbst diese Gruppen christliche Vorstellungen und Rituale integriert. Der Curandero ist wie der Glaube an Hexerei praktisch im gesamten iberoamerikanischen Bereich verbreitet.

Nach der Herrschaft dieser alten Hochreligionen beendete das Christentum zumindest formell die Phase der traditionellen Glaubensvorstellungen.

Kurz gesagt: Der Begriff Mesoamerika stammt vom (Kultur-)Anthropologen Paul Kirchhoff (*/°). Geografie und Hochkultur In Abgrenzung zum. Die Herkunft der faszinierenden Hochkultur der Maya ist Mesoamerika. Dieser Siedlungsraum in Mittelamerika beheimatete viele Völker mit erstaunlichem. mesoamerika - Pyramiden kennt ihr bestimmt aus Ägypten. Doch auch in Mittelamerika wurden viele Pyramiden gebaut. In allen größeren Orten und bei allen. Mesoamerika bezeichnet eine Siedlungslandschaft und ein Kulturareal in Mittelamerika. Das Gebiet Mesoamerikas umfasst großräumige. Mesoamerika: Der Ursprung des Ballspiels. Wo liegen die Wurzeln des mesoamerikanischen Rituals, das wichtiger Bestandteil vieler Kulturen.

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